4. A researcher conducts an experiment comparing two treatment conditions and obtains data with 10 scores for each treatment condition.
a. If the researcher used an independent –measures design, how many subjects participated in the experiment?
b. If the researcher used a repeated-measures design, how many subjects participated in the experiment?
c. If the researcher used a matched-subjects design, how many subjects participated in the experiment?
6. In the preview section of this chapter, we discussed a report describing how the accuracy of Olympic marksmen can be affected by heartbeats. Pelton reported that Olympic –level marksmen shoot much better if they fire between heartbeats rather than squeezing the trigger during a heartbeat. The small vibration caused by a heartbeat seems to be sufficient to affect the marksmen’s aim. The following hypothetical data demonstrate this phenomenon. A sample of n =8 Olympic marksmen fire a series of rounds while a researcher records heartbeats. For each marksman, the total score is recorded for shoots fired during heartbeats and for shoots fired between heartbeats. Do these data indicate a significant difference? Test with α = .05.
Participant During heartbeats Between heartbeats
A 93 98
B 90 94
C 95 96
D 92 91
E 95 97
F 91 97
G 92 95
H 93 97
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