Analogue and digital electronics





1. The objective of simulation is to verify and optimize the design.

Simulation can idealize a circuit. The objective of measurement is
to experimentally confirm the specifications. Measurements must
consider all non-idealities.

a. Describe completely the definition of the Common
Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) of an operational
amplifier. Recommend a circuit to measure the CMRR.
Use MULTISIM to conduct the measurements of
CMRR. Provide the plot of the CMRR (in dB) versus
Frequency (Hz) to prove the efficacy of the OPAMP.


5 Marks

b. What do you understand by the term “slew rate” of an
operational amplifier? Recommend a circuit to
measure this parameter and provide complete
measurement of this parameter using the MULTISIM

15 Marks

2. Design an operational amplifier circuit that performs the
mathematical operation of integration with respect to time; that is,
its output voltage is proportional to the input voltage integrated
over time..

5 Marks

a. Explain fully the operation of the circuit and derive its
input/output characteristic equation.

10 Marks

b. Using MULTISIM show the performance of the circuit
when the input was impressed with the following

i. Square Wave
ii. Triangular Wave


iii. Sine Wave
10 Marks

c. Show that if the input is a sine wave of varying

frequency the OPAMP integrator performs like an
active low-pass filter.

5 Marks

3. An oscillator is the basic element of all AC signal sources and

generates sinusoidal signals of known frequency and amplitude.
It is one of the basic and useful instruments used in electrical
and electronic measurement. Oscillators are used in many
electronics circuits and systems providing the central clock
signal that controls the sequential operation of the entire

a. Describe the operation of an OPAMP-based oscillator

using the concept of a basic oscillator feedback
circuit. Your description must include all pertinent
equations relating the overall closed loop gain and
the open-loop and feedback gain

10 Marks
b. Figure 1 shows the complete schematic diagram of a

variable frequency COLPITTS Oscillator. Use the
MULTISIM platform to simulate the operation of this
oscillator as you vary the values of the inductor, ?,
from 1?? to 62??. What is the gain of the oscillator?

3 Marks

i. Tabulate the output frequencies versus the
various inductor values.

7 Marks

ii. Show the output waveforms as displayed on
the oscilloscope for ten selected

10 Marks

iii. Show the output waveforms as displayed on
the spectrum analyzer of the output
amplitude versus frequency.

10 Marks


Figure 1: Complete schematic diagram of a COLPITTS Oscillator

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