annotation bibliography

submit the annotation of a quantitative research article on the education field. quasi-experimental, causal-comparative, correlational, pretest-posttest or true experimental are examples of types of research designs used in quantitative research.”
esl EA
ATTACHED FILE(S)
1
8
Annotated Bibliography
Author Name
Walden University
RSCH 8110/7110/6110: Research Theory, Design, and Methods
Instructor Name
Due Date
Annotated Bibliography
A
utism researchers continue to grapple with activities that best serve the purpose of fostering positive interpersonal relationships for children with autism. Children have benefited from therapy sessions that provide ongoing activities to aid their ability to engage in healthy social interactions. However, less is known about how K–12 schools might implement programs for this group of individuals to provide additional opportunities for growth, or even if and how school programs would be of assistance in the end. There is a gap, then, in understanding the possibilities of implementing such programs in schools to foster the social and mental health of children with autism. The six articles I selected for this assignment present research on different types of therapeutic programs that have been used to promote social interactions in children with autism.
Annotated Bibliography
Wi
mpory, D. C., & Nash, S. (1999). Musical interaction therapy – therapeutic play for children with autism. Child Language and Teaching Therapy, 15(1), 17–28.
https://doi.org/10.1177/026565909901500103
Wi
mpory and Nash provided a case study for implementing music interaction therapy as part of play therapy aimed at cultivating communication skills in infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The researchers based their argument on films taken of play-based therapy sessions that introduced music interaction therapy. To assess the success of music play, Wimpory and Nash filmed the follow-up play-based interaction between the parent and the child. The follow-up interactions revealed that 20 months after the introduction of music play, the child developed prolonged playful interaction with both the psychologist and the parent. The follow-up films also revealed that the child initiated spontaneously pretend play during these later sessions. After the introduction of music, the child began to develop appropriate language skills.
Si
nce the publication date for this case study is 1999, the results are dated. Although this study found that music interaction therapy is useful, emerging research in the field has undoubtedly changed in the time since this article was published. Wimpory and Nash wrote this article for a specific audience, including psychologists and researchers working with infants diagnosed with ASD. Their focus means that others beyond these fields may not find the findings applicable to their work.
I
am interested in the role of music in therapy to foster social and mental health in children with ASD. Therefore, Wimpory and Nash’s research is useful to me for background information on the implementation of music into play-based therapy in infants with ASD. Wimpory and Nash presented a basis for this technique and outlined its initial development. Therefore, their case study can be useful to my research when paired with more recent research on the topic.
Conclusion
For the Week 10 Application assignment, include a one-paragraph conclusion that presents a
synthesis
of the six articles you annotated.
�An introduction paragraph is a helpful addition to your annotated bibliography to tell your reader about your topic of interest and the general context of your topic.
An introduction paragraph is not required for the Week 6 and Week 8 Application assignments.
An introduction paragraph is required for the Week 10 Application assignment; this single paragraph should provide context for why you selected the six research articles that you did.
�Each APA style-formatted reference entry should be followed by a three-paragraph annotation that includes (a) a summary of the source, (b) an analysis of the source, and (c) an application of the source.
�The first paragraph of the annotation is a � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/assignments/annotatedbibliographies/summary” ��summary� of the source.
The summary should present the (a) main findings of the study, (b) primary method(s) of the study, and (c) theoretical or conceptual basis of the study.
�The second paragraph of the annotation is an � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/assignments/annotatedbibliographies/critique” ��analysis� of the source.
The analysis should explain the strengths and limitations of the source.
�The third paragraph of the annotation is an � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/assignments/annotatedbibliographies/application” ��application� of the source.
The application should (a) justify how the source is applicable to your research interest, (b) describe how the source’s method is applicable to your research interest, and (c) indicate how the source might help to guide your future research on the topic.
In this paragraph, it is acceptable to use the � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/first” ��first person� (I, me, my) in your writing.
��A conclusion is not required for the Week 6 and Week 8 Application assignments.
A conclusion is required for the Week 10 Application assignment; this single paragraph should present a � HYPERLINK “http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence/synthesis” ��synthesis� of the six research articles you annotated.
Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33

Determining the effectiveness of bilingual programs on third grade
state exam scores

Adriana Vela
School Administrator, United ISD

Don Jones
Texas A&M University – Kingsville

Marie-Anne Mundy
Texas A&M University – Kingsville

Carrie Isaacson
Hardin Simmons University

ABSTRACT
This ex-post-facto quasi-experimental research design was conducted by selecting a
convenient sample of approximately 2,000 3rd grade ELLs who took the regular reading and
math English STAAR test during the 2014-15 school year in an urban southern Texas school
district. This study was conducted using a quantitative research method of data collected from
the school district. The data collected consisted of 3rd grade ELL students’ reading and math
English STAAR scores. The researcher analyzed and compared the reading and math STAAR
scores of 3rd grade ELL students enrolled in a transitional bilingual program, in a dual language
two-way bilingual program and a regular program with immersion into all English instruction,
utilizing two one way analysis of variance (ANOVAs). Approximately 2,000 3rd grade ELL
students enrolled in this urban southern Texas school district. The researcher examined for
differences among the scores of ELLs enrolled in the bilingual programs.
Conclusions to the findings determined that there were significant differences among the
three educational programs for ELL students in third grade on the STAAR test results in the
regular English math STAAR test for ELL students in third grade, but did not find significant
differences in the test scores in the regular English reading STAAR test results.

Keywords: Education, Bilingual programs, Dual language, Early exit, Quantitative study, State
Exams

Copyright statement: Authors retain the copyright to the manuscripts published in AABRI
journals. Please see the AABRI Copyright Policy at http://www.aabri.com/copyright.html
Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33

INTRODUCTION

ELLs, or students who are English Language Learners, speak a language other than
English in their homes; ELLs have existed in U.S. public school systems for many decades
(Ramsey, 2009). As a result, bilingual education programs have been created and implemented
by the federal and many state governments throughout the decades to meet the academic and
linguistic demands of ELLs (Bunch, 2011). Roseberry-Mc-Kibbin, Brice and O’Hanlon (2005)
explained, in the school year of 2000-2001, California had the largest enrollment of Limited
English Proficiency (LEP) students at 1,511,646, while Texas had 570,022, followed by Florida
with 254,517, New York with 239,097, Illinois with 140,528 and finally Arizona with 135,248.
According to the National Center for Educational Statistics (2015), in 2011-12 the following
were the number of ELL students enrolled in each mentioned state: California with 1,415,623,
Texas with 722,043, Florida with 234,347, New York with 204,898, Illinois with 170,626 and
Arizona with 70,527. These studies show, in eleven years, students enrolled in ELL programs
have actually decreased slightly in California, Florida, New York and in Arizona, while
increasing in Texas and Illinois.
In recent years, the influx of Spanish speaking families from Central America fleeing
violence has increased, causing higher numbers of ELLs to enroll in U.S. public schools; in turn,
this influx began causing public schools to redirect resources towards bilingual education
programs (ASHA, 2015). The ASHA Leader (February, 2015) article statedthat Miami-Dade
County schools added approximately 2,000 students from El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala
to the 77,000 ELL students they already had enrolled within their school district.
In Texas, more specifically, the recent influx of Spanish speaking immigrants has been at
high volumes. In the past 40 years, Texas grew from 11 to 26 million people, with the fastest
growth belonging to Hispanics who now make up 38 percent of the state’s total population
(Block, 2014). Hispanics are estimated to become the largest single group in Texas by the year
2020 (Block, 2014). Many communities in Texas, previously not required to offer bilingual
education, are now faced with the challenge of providing bilingual education programs for ELL
students.
Currently, a problem exists in Texas elementary schools with educators struggling to
meet the academic demands for the influx of ELL students who have little to no formal schooling
in their home countries. Specifically, these ELL students are expected to pass the new and more
academically rigorous state exam, the STAAR test, in 3rd through 5th grades (TEA, 2010). While
the federal and state governments have attempted to fill the gap in ELLs’ educational needs with
current bilingual programs, ELLs continue to score lower than non-ELLs (all English) students
on STAAR exams (TEA, Texas Academic Performance Report 2013-14, 2015). TEA (2015)
publishes this performance report yearly, showing the STAAR exam results for every school and
school district for different demographic groups. TEA’s (2015) TAPR for the 2013-14 school
year reported that 57% of ELLs met STAAR passing scores in all subjects, while 77% of all
other demographic groups met passing scores in all subjects. So, according to the 2013-14 TAPR
report, 20% fewer ELLs in the state met passing scores as compared to all other demographic
groups in the state (TEA, 2015).
Elementary school administrators are faced with the challenge of implementing a
bilingual education program in their school that yields the best scores on the STAAR tests in 3rd
through 5th grades. Since the decision to promote or retain students is based on the reading and
math STAAR exam scores in 5th grade, and because they are an indicator for academic success in
Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33

Texas (TEA, 2010), STAAR test results may be used to evaluate bilingual education programs.
There are many possible factors contributing to why fewer ELLs meet state passing scores than
non-ELLs. Among these factors could be dual language two-way programs that are known to be
more effective than transitional bilingual education programs (Lindholm-Leary, 2005); yet not
all schools offer dual language two-way programs for their students.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference among ELL students
who were enrolled in one of three programs; (1) a transitional bilingual program, (2) a dual
language two-way immersion program or (3) a regular program with immersion into all-English
instruction on the reading and math STAAR tests in 3rd grade. The independent variable was the
type of program. The dependent variables were the regular English STAAR reading and math
scores of the 3rd grade ELLs who took these tests in this southern Texas school district during
the 2014-15 academic school year and who were enrolled in an early exit bilingual program, a
dual language two-way immersion program, or were not enrolled in any bilingual program.
Once a student is labeled as an ELL, parents can choose a dual language two-way
immersion program if the school offers this program. A parent of an ELL may also choose an
early exit bilingual program, which is the most prevalent; or, parents may choose to deny any
bilingual program offered by the school and have their ELLs immersed in the regular English
school curriculum. Regardless of which program an ELL student is placed, they must take the
STAAR exam in reading and in math in the 3rd grade. Knowledge gained from this study through
data collection and analysis provided elementary school administrators and educators with an
understanding of which elementary bilingual education programs are more effective in helping
ELL students perform successfully on the STAAR test. The gathered information assisted with
determining which education program school administrators or educators should implement in
their schools. Findings in this study extended the existing body of knowledge surrounding the
effectiveness of bilingual education programs in elementary schools.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This study was directed by the following research questions:

RQ1: Are there any differences among ELL students placed in a transitional bilingual program, a
dual language two-way immersion program or a regular program with immersion into all-English
instruction on the 3rd grade reading STAAR test in a school district in southern Texas?

RQ2: Are there any differences among ELL students placed in a transitional bilingual program, a
dual language two-way immersion program or a regular program with immersion into all-English
instruction on the 3rd grade math STAAR test in a school district in southern Texas?
H1: There are significant differences among ELL students in a transitional bilingual
program, a dual language two-way immersion program or a regular program
with immersion into all-English instruction on the 3rd grade reading STAAR test
in a school district in southern Texas.
Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33

H2: There are significant differences among ELL students in a transitional bilingual
program, a dual language two-way immersion program or a regular program
with immersion into all-English instruction on the 3rd grade math STAAR test in
a school district in Texas.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND APPROACH

This study was conducted using quantitative research among ELL students in 3rd grade in
an urban school district in southern Texas. In this study, the researcher sought to examine
differences in 3rd grade students’ STAAR scores in reading and math among ELL students who
were in a transitional bilingual education program, in a dual language two-way immersion
bilingual program or in a regular program with immersion into English-only instruction. The
ANOVA assessed whether the means of the dependent variables, 3rd grade STAAR scores, were
significantly different among the independent groups or types of instruction (Green & Salkind,
2011). The researcher used a quasi-experimental research design. A quasi-experimental design
was utilized in cases when a researcher had to use a convenience sample or naturally formed
groups, i.e. 3rd grade ELL students and not randomly assigned groups (Creswell, 2014). Third
grade is the first year students in Texas public schools are mandated to take the STAAR. The
scores in 3rd grade indicate the success of early elementary literacy programs. In this study, the
researcher examined if differences in scores existed among the three strategies: a transitional
bilingual program, a dual language two-way immersion program and a regular program with
immersion into English-only instruction.
This was an ex-post-facto quasi-experimental research design with non-equivalent
groups. A convenience sample of a naturally formed group was used in the study (Creswell,
2014). The researcher selected 3rd grade ELLs who took the regular reading and math English
STAAR test during the 2014-15 school year.

POPULATION AND SAMPLE

The population for this study consisted of approximately 2,000 third-grade ELL students
during the 2014-15 school year in an urban school district in southern Texas who were enrolled
in a transitional bilingual program, a dual language two-way immersion program or in a regular
program with immersion into English-only instruction. This sample was divided into the three
instructional groups once the research study was conducted from the school district’s 3rd grade
ELL student population of approximately 2,000 students. All ELLs in 3rd grade who took the
regular English reading and math STAAR test in the school district were part of the sample.
According to TEA (2012), the school district in this study had approximately 40% ELLs, 75%
economically disadvantaged (ED) students, 65% at risk (AR) students, and 98% were Hispanic
(TEA, 2015).
TEA (2010) explained STAAR tests were designed by TEA and made to measure what
students have learned in one school year after being taught the state mandated curriculum called
the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). Students in 3rd through 8th grades were tested
in several subjects; however, this study concentrated on the 3rd grade state mandated STAAR
exams of reading and math. Also, reading and math were assessed yearly in 3rd through 8th
grades. According to public policy 89.1201-89.1269 (TEA, 2012) the following must be
followed for student assessments:
Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33

Every student must be assessed by the STAAR based on grade level curriculum; ELLs
participate in the STAAR assessment; however a Language Proficiency Assessment
Committee (LPAC) decides if ELLs will be administered the test in English with or
without accommodations, or in Spanish; a STAAR test with linguistic accommodations
(STAAR L) is also available for ELLs in math, science and social studies in English, but
the LPAC committee must decide if an ELL student will take this test; students who
participate in special education must have an Admissions, Review and Dismissal (ARD)
committee decide whether the special education student will take the STAAR test in any
subject with a STAAR Accommodated (STAAR A) test with or without specific
accommodations; students who participate in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of
1973, which was established to protect students with disabilities against discrimination,
must have a Section 504 committee decide if the student will take a regular STAAR test
with or without accommodations, or a STAAR A test with or without accommodations.
According to the STAAR Assessments Standard Setting Technical Report, curriculum
specialists in all subjects were hired by TEA in 2010 and 2011 to decide which TEKS curriculum
in every grade level should be assessed yearly by the STAAR tests (TEA, 2015). Then, TEA set
common readiness and performance standards for each grade level subject STAAR exam and
then were vertically aligned by grade levels. Every student was assessed by these common
readiness and performance standards. TEA (2010) explained how the first STAAR exams based
on these methods were given to public education students.
This quantitative study used data provided by the school district in this study. The
district’s testing department provided the needed data for the research. The data needed to
conduct the research was a list of 2014-15 third-grade ELL students identified by their local
district identification number, the bilingual program they were enrolled in or not enrolled in if
their parents have denied any bilingual program alongside their reading and math scores for the
2014-15 STAAR administration. Every school year, TEA provides the scores to every school
district in Texas. Permission to conduct this research using this existing data was obtained from
the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at Texas A&M University-Kingsville, as well as a research
data agreement provided by the school district. Approval by the IRB committee ensured data
collected by the researcher remained confidential. The research data agreement given by the
school district also ensured data would be kept confidential and handled with veracity and
integrity. The researcher also sought approval from the district’s Superintendent. Once the
researcher obtained the data from the school district, the data was inputted into a software
program titled Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), where the STAAR assessment
scores were analyzed.
Two analysis of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted among three ELL student groups
enrolled in two bilingual education programs, or in a regular program with immersion into
English-only instruction in an urban south Texas school district. An ANOVA was used because
more than two groups were being assessed and were compared on their average performance
(Salkind, 2011). The researcher attempted to find if there was a significant difference among the
three groups. Creswell (2014) defined a variable to be a characteristic of a group or a person that
can be measured or observed. Creswell (2014) also explained these characteristics vary among
each variable being tested in a study. Creswell (2014) defined dependent variables as outcomes
that depend on the independent variables. The dependent variables were students’ STAAR exam
scores in reading and math. Creswell (2014) defined independent variables as variables that
cause or affect an outcome. In this study, the independent variable was the type of instructional
Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33

program used. The researcher attempted to find the differences among three different
instructional groups for 3rd grade ELL students in an urban south Texas school district on scores
in math and reading STAAR.
All data was obtained from within the same school district. The school district’s testing
department had the 2014-15 STAAR scores provided by the state. In addition, the school district
used an internal data program called IRIS, which coded each student’s demographic information
and the educational programs, i.e. bilingual programs, they were participating in every school
year. This program defined the student as an ELL student and coded the bilingual program they
were participating in, or not participating in because parents denied a program.
An ANOVA was conducted to examine data using students’ interval scores in the 3rd
grade reading and math STAAR. The ANOVA compared the variances of the test scores
between the ELLs in each instructional group, and the scores were compared with one another
(Salkind, 2011). According to Salkind (2011), “the variance due to difference in performance is
separated into (a) variance that’s due to differences between individuals within groups and (b)
variance due to differences between groups. Then, the two types of variance are compared with
one another” (pp. 234-236). Effect size (eta2) was used to measure the amount of variance in the
scores that was due to the type of instructional program, or the measure of the size of the
treatment (Salkind, 2011).

RESULTS

An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and descriptive statistics were analyzed using the
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software 22.0 for Windows and Mac for
research questions 1 and 2. The researcher considered the results for the three different
educational programs the transitional bilingual program, the dual language two-way immersion
program, and the regular program with immersion into all-English instruction. An explanation of
the reading STAAR scores of the third grade ELL students who took the regular English STAAR
test in the school district will first be discussed. The descriptive statistics of the third grade ELL
student participants in the 2014-15 regular English reading STAAR test can be found in Table 1.
In addition, the descriptive statistics of the third grade ELL student participants in the 2014-15
regular English math STAAR test can be found in Table 2.
Data collected for this study were already in existence in urban, south Texas
elementary schools. Data provided: 2,279 third grade ELL students located in a southern Texas
school district took the regular English reading STAAR tests during the 2014-15 school year, as
shown in Figure 1From the 2,279 ELL students who took the regular STAAR reading test, 356
were enrolled in the dual language bilingual program, 1,606 were enrolled in the bilingual
transitional program and only 27 were enrolled in the all-English immersion program. The total
population was not normally distributed. There were more ELL students enrolled in the bilingual
transitional program for both reading and math STAAR tests, followed by less students in the
dual language bilingual program, and then even less ELL students were enrolled in the all-
English immersion program. A random sample of ELL students was selected from each of the
three programs in order to normalize the data collection. A total of 72 ELL students were studied
in both reading and in math (i.e. 24 ELL students from each of three educational programs in
both reading and in math).
The total number of third grade ELL students who took the regular English reading
STAAR test in this study was 72 students. There were 41 (57%) female and 31 (43%) male
Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33

students who took the regular English reading STAAR test. Out of these 72 students, a total of 5
(7%) of the students were in the Section 504 program, 5 (7%) were in the special education
program, and 2 (3%) of these students participated in the gifted and talented program. Of the
total 72 ELL students who took the regular English reading STAAR test, 61 (85%) of the
students were classified as low socioeconomic status. Out of the 72 total ELL students who took
the regular English reading STAAR test in this study, 71 (99%) were classified as Hispanic; 72
(100%) were considered White. In addition, when an ELL student has attended this school
district for more than three years, these students are considered ELL Plus students. In this study
of third grade ELL students who took the regular English reading STAAR test in 2014-15, 63
(87.5%) of the ELL students were ELL Plus students.
Table 3 shows the overall descriptive statistics for reading. The total student sample
consisted of 72 students across the three educational programs. The ELL students in the
transitional bilingual education program had the lowest reading STAAR scores (21.67 ± 5.98),
while the ELL students enrolled in the dual language bilingual education program held the
second highest scores (24.17 ± 7.97), and finally the ELL students enrolled in the all-English
immersion educational programshowed the best results with (25.04 ± 5.94).
In the mathematics STAAR test for the 2014-15 school year in this southern Texas school
district, a total of 2,284 took the regular English STAAR math test, as shown in Figure 2. From
the 2,284 ELL students who took the regular math STAAR test, 359 were enrolled in the
bilingual dual language program, 1,608 were enrolled in the transitional bilingual program, and
27 ELL students were in the all-English immersion program. A random sample of ELL students
was selected from each of the three programs in order to normalize the data collection. A total of
72 ELL students were studied in both reading and in math (i.e. 24 ELL students from each of
three educational programs in both reading and in math).
The total number of third grade ELL students who took the regular English math STAAR
test in this study were 72 students. There were 32 (44%) female and 40 (56%) male students who
took the regular English math STAAR test. Out of these 72 students, a total of 8 (11%) of the
students were in the Section 504 program, a total of 3 (4%) were in the special education
program, and 5 (7%) of these students participated in the gifted and talented program. Of the
total 72 ELL students who took the regular English math STAAR test, 59 (82%) of the students
were classified as low socioeconomic status. Out of the 72 total ELL students who took the
regular English math STAAR test in this study, 71 (99%) were classified as both Hispanic and
White. In this study of third grade ELL students who took the regular English math STAAR test
in 2014-15, 63 (87.5%) of the ELL students were ELL Plus students. The descriptive statistics of
the third grade ELL student participants in the 2014-15 regular Math STAAR test can be found
in Table 4.

Inferential Statistics

Research Question 1

Question 1 examined the 3rd grade reading STAAR scores for ELL students asking if
there were any differences among ELL students placed in a transitional
bilingual program, a dual language two-way immersion program or a regular
program with immersion into all-English instruction on the 3rd grade reading
Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33

STAAR test in a school district in southern Texas. There were no outliers, as
assessed by
boxplot; data was normally distributed for each group, as assessed by Shapiro-Wilk
test (p>.05); there was homogeneity of variances, as assessed by Levene’s test of
homogeneity of variances (p=.350). Data was presented as mean ± standard deviation.
The differences between these three educational programs for ELL students were not
statistically significant, F(2, 69) =1.641, p=.201. There was a moderate effect size of
.05 (ɳ2 =.045). The instructional program accounts for 5% of the variance in the reading
STAAR test. The group means were not significantly different (p > .05); therefore,
we fail to reject the null hypothesis. The summary of findings of the SPSS analysis is
shown in Table 5.

Research Question 2

Research Question 2 examined if there were any differences among ELL students placed
in a transitional bilingual program, a dual language two-way immersion program or a regular
program with immersion into all-English instruction on the 3rd grade math STAAR test in a
school district in southern Texas.
An ANOVA was conducted to determine if there was a significant difference in the
STAAR math test scores among 72 third grade ELL students enrolled in three educational
programs in a southern Texas school district. There were no outliers, as assessed by a boxplot;
data was normally distributed for each group, as assessed by Shapiro-Wilk test (p>.05); there
was homogeneity of variances, as assessed by Levene’s test of homogeneity of variances
(p=.201). The differences between these three educational programs for ELL students were
statistically significant, F(2, 69) = 4.40, p=.016, ɳ2= .11. The effect size was moderate and the
educational programs accounted for 11% of the variance of the math STAAR test. The group
means were significantly different (p < .05); therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. The summary of findings of the SPSS analysis is shown in Table 6. Since there was a significant difference, a post hoc analysis was done analyzing the multiple comparisons with the Tukey method. The dual language group (mean = 33.7, SD = 5.31) scored significantly higher than the all-English immersion group (mean = 28.4, SD = 6.79), p = .03. The dual language group (mean = 33.7, SD = 5.31) scored significantly higher than the transitional instructional group (mean = 28.7, SD = 8.34), p = .04. Summary of Analysis AnANOVA was conducted to determine if there was a significant difference in the STAAR reading test scores of third grade ELL students who took the regular English STAAR reading test and were enrolled in a transitional bilingual program, a dual language two-way immersion program or a regular program with immersion into all-English instruction in a school district in southern Texas.No significant differences were found among the three educational programs where the ELL students were enrolled. Although there were no significant differences, descriptive statistics found that the ELL students enrolled in the all-English immersion program had the highest mean followed by the dual language bilingual program. The transitional bilingual program had the lowest mean. Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33 AnANOVA was also conducted to determine if there was a significant difference in the STAAR math test scores of ELL students who took the regular English STAAR math test and were enrolled in a transitional bilingual program, a dual language two-way bilingual program or a an all-English immersion program. There was a significant difference among the three programs in the math STAAR test results. The ELL students enrolled in the dual language bilingual program scored significantly higher than both the transitional bilingual program and the all-English immersion program. Although the all-English immersion program had a slightly lower mean score than the transitional bilingual program, the ELL students in the all-English immersion program had a lower standard deviation than the transitional bilingual program. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The amount of literature that currently exists surrounding educational programs for ELL students in the elementary level and their impact in the new STAAR test standards scores may be limited; however, with the growing numbers of ELL students in our schools in Texas as well as in other states, an analysis of which bilingual educational program, if any at all, has the best test results or scores in elementary school is important to study (Block, 2014). Elementary school is the foundation of knowledge; for ELL students, it is where the English language is first learned (Becker, Becker & Kim, 2014). Singh (2013) explained success in early reading for students equates success for them in higher grade levels. In addition, academic success in elementary is essential for the success of future life careers (Becker, Becker & Kim, 2014), because it is a value for ELL elementary students to learn the English language during the elementary years. The STAAR tests in Texas public schools are implemented as indicators of how much students have learned during that particular school year in different testing subjects. Therefore, elementary educators should work towards achieving the goal of having all of their students, and in this particular study ELL students pass the state mandated STAAR exams. The results of this study provided information that may be utilized by various education professionals, such as teachers, campus administrators, district directors and superintendents. In addition, the results of this study may also be utilized by parents and students alike. In an effort to assist school and district leaders to implement the educational program that yields the best test result for the growing numbers of ELL students in elementary school, the study took into account the first STAAR testing grade. Third grade is the first year all students in public schools take state mandated tests. Third grade tests the foundational subjects of math and reading. After third grade, math and reading are tested in every grade level until the eighth grade. After eighth grade, students in high school will need to pass five core subject exams in order to graduate from high school. In these five core subject exams, there is one reading-based and one math-based exam to master. In addition, reading is embedded in every subject matter; mastering reading is instrumental to the academic success of all subjects in public schools, especially mastering reading comprehension (Becker, Becker & Kim, 2014). This study took into account both reading and math English STAAR test scores because these are the two subjects tested every school year, in elementary and beyond. This study contributes to the assistance of parents in making educated decisions for their ELL children in elementary school. Teachers, school administrators, district administrators and district superintendents are faced with the daunting task of educating all of their students, especially ELL students who speak a native language other than English and deciding on the program they will use. ELL students' expectations for learning Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33 are the same as those for non-ELL students, so school educators must make decisions on how to best educate them to meet these same high demands. Research findings from this study reported on the impact of bilingual educational programs on ELL students in third grade by measuring the English reading and math STAAR exam results. In addition, an all-English immersion program was also researched for this study. The results suggested no significant differences among the educational programs of the dual language bilingual program, the transitional bilingual program and the all-English immersion program for ELL students on their English STAAR reading results. However, the results for the English math STAAR test results of ELL students did find that the dual language bilingual program scored significantly higher than both the transitional bilingual and the all-English immersion program. The following recommendations were made as a result of this study: 1. Since this study was conducted in an urban elementary school, a similar study in a rural elementary school may yield different results. Comparisons respective to the two geographical areas could then be analyzed for differences. 2. The samples of participants were limited to one school district in southern Texas. A study on how ELL students in other school districts perform in the third grade math and reading STAAR exams enrolled in one of the three different educational programs could be used to compare for significant differences in the same study. 3. Similarly, other educational programs in other school districts, such as the late exit transitional bilingual programs, can also be studied for their effects on the English reading and math STAAR results on ELL students in third grade to expand on this study. 4. A study should be considered that focuses on tracking the regular English STAAR scores of the reading and the math tests of the same ELL students in this study in grades 4 and 5 enrolled in the three educational programs. This may provide district leaders with additional research on how ELL students’ STAAR scores in reading and math progress throughout their elementary years, before they enter middle school in 6th grade. A repeated measures one way ANOVA may be used to measure the scores in third, fourth and fifth grade of the same ELL students enrolled in the same educational programs. 5. A study should be considered that takes into account the different demographics of the students enrolled in each of the three educational programs: the dual language bilingual program, the transitional bilingual program and the all-English immersion program. This type of study is conducted in an effort to determine which demographic group best benefits from a particular educational program, using the STAAR test results as the measure of success. For example, an individual factorial ANOVA could be performed for any individual demographic group that the researcher wants to test by considering what effects these individual factors have on the regular English STAAR test results in reading and in math of ELL students in third grade enrolled in any of the three educational groups: the dual language bilingual program, the transitional bilingual program and the all-English immersion program. The different demographic criteria that can be measured are gender, Section 504, special education, gifted and talented, low or high socioeconomic status, the race/ethnicity, LEP Plus and retention. Breaking down the research to specific demographic would help the researcher find even more specific data to assist educators to plan for even more specific educational programs. Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33 6. Additional information can be provided by teachers in relation to how much small group interventions or after school tutorials is provided to ELL students in their third grade classes in the three different educational programs in the form of a survey. This survey could add to the body of knowledge pertaining to ELL students and third grade regular English math and reading STAAR test scores. REFERENCES ASHA Leader (2015). Florida ell students get an extra catch-up year. American Speech Language-Hearing Association, February, 14. Becker, J.K., Becker, B.J., & Kim, Y. (2014). Examining differential item functioning trends for english language learners in a reading test: a meta-analytical approach. Language Testing, 31(1), 89-101. Block, M. (2014). As texas gets more diverse, educators grab the bull by the horns. NPR. Retrieved from http://npr.org Bunch, M. (2011). Testing english language learners under no child left behind act. Language Testing, 28(3), 323-341. Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Fox Searchlight Pictures (2015). Napolean Dynamite, http://www.foxsearchlight.com Green, S., & Salkind, N. (2011). Using Spss for Windows and Macintosh Mysearchlab Valuepack Access Card Analyzing and Understanding Data. New Jersey: Pearson College Div. Lindholm-Leary, K. (2013). Bilingual and biliteracy skills in young spanish-speaking low-ses children: impact of instructional language and primary language proficiency. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 17(2), 144-159. National Center for Education Statistics, NCES (2015), nces.ed.gov Ramsey, P. (2009). In the region of babel: public bilingual schooling in the midwest, 1840s- 1880s. History of Education Quarterly 49(3), 267-290. Roseberry-McKibblin, C., Brice, A., & O’Hanlon, L. (2005). Serving english language learners in public school settings: a national survey. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools,36, 48-61. Salkind, N. (2011). Statistics for People who Think They Hate Statistics. Thousand Oaks, Cooperative Industrial, California:Sage Publications. Singh, M. (2013). A study of a state-wide reading assessment: the importance of early achievement and socio-demographic factors. Educational Research and Evaluation, 19(1), 4-18. Texas Education Agency (2015). Academic Excellence Indicator System 2011-12 State Performance Report. Retrieved from http://www.ritter.tea.state.tx.us. Texas Education Agency (2012). Chapter 89. Adaptations for Special Programs. Subchapter BB. Commissioner's Rules Concerning State Plan for Educating English Language Learners. Retrieved from 89.1201-89.1269, http://www.tea.texas.gov Texas Education Agency (2015). STAAR Resources. Retrieved from http://tea.texas.gov Texas Education Agency (2015). Texas Academic Performance Report 2013-14 State Performance. Retrieved from http://www.ritter.tea.state.tx.us Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33 Texas Education Agency (2015). Texas Education Agency 2014 Accountability Summary State: TEA Division of Performance Reporting. Retrieved from http://www.ritter.tea.state.tx.usa Texas Education Agency (2010). The State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR) A New Assessment Model, Texas Education Agency Student Assessment Division. Retrieved from http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/taa/studassmt101510a.doc APPENDIX Figure 1 STAAR Reading Participants Figure 2 STAAR Math Participants Table 1 ELL Student Demographic Data for Third Grade Reading STAAR Test (N=72) Characteristic Frequency % Gender Female 41 57% Male 31 43% Section 504 Yes 5 7% No 66 93% Special Ed 356 1606 27 STAAR Reading Participants Dual Language Program Transitional Bilingual Program All-English Immersion Program 359 1608 27 STAAR Math Participants Dual Language Program Transitional Bilingual Program All-English Immersion Program Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33 Yes 5 7% No 67 93% Gifted and Talented Yes 2 3% No 70 97% Low Socioeconomic Status Yes 61 85% No 11 15% Race Hispanic 71 99% Non-Hispanic 1 1% Ethnicity (Subgroup) American Indian 0 0% Asian 0 0% African American 0 0% Pacific Islander 0 0% White 72 100% ELL Plus (3+ years in US Schools starting in Kindergarten) Yes 63 87.5% No 9 12.5% Students that have been retained Yes 9 12.5% No 63 87.5% Table 2 ELL Student Demographic Data for Third Grade Math STAAR Test (N=72) Characteristic Frequency % Gender Female 32 44% Male 40 56% Section 504 Yes 8 11% No 64 89% Special Education Yes 3 4% No 69 96% Gifted and Talented Yes 5 7% No 67 93% Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33 Low Socioeconomic Status Yes 59 82% No 13 18% Race Hispanic 71 99% Non-Hispanic 1 1% Ethnicity (Subgroup) American Indian 1 1% Asian 0 0% African American 0 0% Pacific Islander 0 0% White 71 99% ELL Plus (3+ years in US Schools starting in Kindergarten) Yes 63 87.5% No 9 12.5% Students that have been retained Yes 5 7% No 67 93% Table 3 Reading Descriptive Statistics Group Mean SD Dual Language Bilingual Program 24.17 7.971 Transitional Bilingual Program 21.67 5.983 All-English Immersion Program25.04 5.938 Table 4 Math Descriptive Statistics Group Mean SD Dual Language Bilingual Program 33.67 5.31 Transitional Bilingual Program 28.71 8.34 All-English Immersion Program28.38 6.79 Table 5 Summary of ANOVA Table for Reading STAAR Test Sum of Squares df Mean Square F P Partial ɳ2 Research in Higher Education JournalVolume 33 Between Groups 147.25 7.97 73.63 1.64 0.201 0.045 Within Groups 3095.6 69 44.86 Total 3242.9 Table 6 Summary of ANOVA Table for Math STAAR Test Sum of Squares df Mean Square F P Partial eta squared Between Groups 421.58 2 210.8 4.4 0.016 0.113 Within Groups 3305.9 69 47.91 Total 3727.5

Paper Assignments
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.