Discussion Question

What are the responsibilities of community and public health nurses in promoting health and decreasing illness and injury in populations, families, and individuals?
APA style
3 paragraphs
2 reference
nursing
ATTACHED FILE(S)
Chapter 5: Frameworks for Health Promotion, Disease Prevention, and Risk Reduction
Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved
1
Chapter Highlights #1
Influences on health and well-being
Role of the nurse as an interdisciplinary team member in health promotion and prevention
Health promotion programs
Epidemiologic models of health promotion and public health science
Levels of prevention and pathogenesis
Immunizations
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Chapter Highlights #2
Screening
Behavior change theories
Ecologic model and women living with HIV/AIDS
Health literacy
Interactive health literacy and health education
Critical health literacy and health promotion
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Question #1
Is the following statement true or false?
International goals and directives to maintain the health of individuals, families, and communities are significant road maps for healthcare professionals.
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Answer to Question #1
False
National, not international, goals and directives to maintain the health of individuals, families, and communities are significant road maps for healthcare professionals.
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Health
Health—a quality, an ability to adapt to change, or a resource to help cope with challenges and processes of daily living
Well-being—a subjective perception of full functional ability as a human being
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Health Promotion, Disease Prevention, and Risk Reduction as Core Activities of Public Health
Providing essential input to interdisciplinary programs
Evaluating health trends and risk factors
Working with communities or specific population groups within the community
Participating in assessing and evaluating healthcare services
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Healthy People Initiatives
To increase quality and years of healthy life
To eliminate any barriers to accessing care, specifically through health disparities
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Road Maps to Health Promotion
Epidemiologic model and prevention
Levels of prevention
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
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Question #2
Is the following statement true or false?
Tertiary prevention—maximizing health and wellness through strategies that are set in place at the early and active chronic stages of pathogenesis of illness and injury.
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Answer to Question #2
False
Rationale: Secondary prevention—maximizing health and wellness through strategies that are set in place at the early and active chronic stages of pathogenesis of illness and injury. Tertiary prevention—maximizing health and wellness through strategies that are set in place at the palliation and end-stage of disease and injury trajectories.
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Levels of Prevention
Primary prevention—maximizing health and wellness through strategies that are set in place before illness or injury is present
Secondary prevention—maximizing health and wellness through strategies that are set in place at the early and active chronic stages of pathogenesis of illness and injury
Tertiary prevention—maximizing health and wellness through strategies that are set in place at the palliation and end stage of disease and injury trajectories
Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved
Question #3
Is the following statement true or false?
Learning model—a behavior change model that considers the severity of the potential illness or physical challenge, the level of conceivable susceptibility, the benefits of taking preventive action, and the challenges that may be faced in taking action toward the goal of health promotion.
Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved
Answer to Question #3
False
Rationale: Health belief model—a behavior change model that considers the severity of the potential illness or physical challenge, the level of conceivable susceptibility, the benefits of taking preventive action, and the challenges that may be faced in taking action toward the goal of health promotion. Learning model—a behavior change model emphasizing reinforcement of social competence, problem solving, autonomy, and sense of purpose
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Behavior Models
Motivational interviewing—client-centered communication style for eliciting behavior change by helping clients and groups explore and resolve ambivalence to change
Behavior change models—models that assist clients, groups, and communities to redirect activities toward health and wellness
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Learning Model
A behavior change model emphasizing reinforcement of social competence, problem solving, autonomy, and sense of purpose
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Health Belief Model
A behavior change model that considers the severity of the potential illness or physical challenge, the level of conceivable susceptibility, the benefits of taking preventive action, and the challenges that may be faced in taking action toward the goal of health promotion
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Transtheoretical Model
Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Relapse
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Theory of Reasoned Action
A behavior model that emphasizes that individual performance of a given behavior is primarily determined by a person’s intention to perform that behavior
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Social Learning
A behavior change model that considers environmental influences, personal factors, and behavior as key components of change
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Theories of Social Support
Family members, friends, neighbors, and adjacent communities influencing change by offering instrumental assistance, informational support, emotional support, and/or appraising support
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The Relapse Prevention Model
Negative emotional states
Lack of or limited coping skills
Decreased motivation
Stress
High-risk experiences
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Ecologic Model
Belief that all processes occurring within individual people and their environment should be viewed as interdependent
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Use of the Ecologic Model: Evidence for Health Promotion Intervention #1
Emphasize the unique developmental nature of variables that influence behaviors
Use a multilayered understanding of influence on behaviors
Test variables from each of the identified systems in the model to guide the assessment, development, implementation, and evaluation of targeted interventions
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Use of the Ecologic Model: Evidence for Health Promotion Intervention #2
Ontogenic system—personal factors
Microsystem—relationship between women and the environment
Exosystem—formal and informal social structures
Macroculture—values and beliefs of culture
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Health Promotion and Secondary/Tertiary Prevention for Women Living with HIV/AIDS
Prevention initiative that is community-based, peer-led, and interdisciplinary
Positive prevention
African American women experiencing disproportionate interpersonal mistrust, adherence to treatment plan, delays in seeking care, and compromised self-advocacy
Consideration to mental health
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Health Literacy
Information-literate
Visually literate
Communication-literate
Computationally literate
Analytically literate
Computer-literate
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Health Literacy and Health Education
Establishing supportive learning environment
Effective questioning
Evidence-based health literacy universal precautions
Healthy People 2020 and health literacy
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Health Literacy and Health Promotion
Build healthy public policies
Create supportive environments
Strengthen community action
Develop personal skills
Reorient health services
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Role of Nurses
Knowledge of the three levels of health literacy allows the community health nurse to intervene at the individual, provider, and community level:
Functional
Interactive
Critical
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Chapter 6: Epidemiology:
The Science of Prevention
Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved
Chapter Highlights
Defining epidemiology
Development of epidemiology as a science
Epidemiologic conceptual frameworks
Applying epidemiologic principles in practice
Assessment of health needs and assets
Using assessment data for planning and implementing interventions
Promoting healthy lifestyles
Preventing and controlling outbreaks
Contributing to a safe and healthy environment
Evaluating the effectiveness of health services
Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved
Question #1
Is the following statement true or false?
Epidemic—an outbreak that occurs when there is an increased incidence of a disease beyond that which is normally found in the population
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Answer to Question #1
True
Rationale: Epidemic—an outbreak that occurs when there is an increased incidence of a disease beyond that which is normally found in the population.
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Defining Epidemiology #1
Study of the distribution and determinants of states of health and illness in human populations; used both as a research methodology for studying states of health and illness, and as a body of knowledge that results from the study of a specific state of health or illness
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Defining Epidemiology #2
Epidemic—an outbreak that occurs when there is an increased incidence of a disease beyond that which is normally found in the population
Rates—the primary measurement used to describe either the occurrence or the existence of a specific state of health or illness
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Question #2
Who is perhaps the best known epidemiologist of the 19th century?
John Graunt
William Farr
John Snow
Florence Nightingale
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Answer to Question #2
C. John Snow
Rationale: Perhaps the best known epidemiologist of the 19th century was John Snow, a contemporary of William Farr. One of the first people to study patterns of disease in populations was a London haberdasher, John Graunt. Farr set up a system for consistent collection of the numbers and the causes of deaths. Florence Nightingale, the daughter of a wealthy Englishman, was also a contemporary of William Farr and John Snow. Shedevoted her life to the prevention of needless illness and death.
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Development of Epidemiology as a Science
John Graunt and the Bills of Mortality
William Farr, Registrar General
John Snow and the Broad Street Pump
Florence Nightingale, Nurse and Epidemiologist
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Question #3
Is the following statement true or false?
Wheel of causation is the classic model based on the belief that health status is determined by the interaction of the characteristics of the host, agent, and environment, not by any single factor.
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Answer to Question #3
False
Rationale: Epidemiologic triad is the classic model based on the belief that health status is determined by the interaction of the characteristics of the host, agent, and environment, not by any single factor. Wheel of causation de-emphasizes the agent as the sole cause of disease while emphasizing the interplay of physical, biologic, and social environments.
Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved
Epidemiologic Models
Epidemiologic triad
The wheel of causation
The web of causation
Natural history of disease
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Question #4
Is the following sentence true or false?
Community assessments, using epidemiologic principles, form the database that provides the evidence and rationale for interventions.
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Answer to Question #4
False
Rationale: Individual and community assessments, using epidemiologic principles, form the database that provides the evidence and rationale for interventions.
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Applying Epidemiologic Principles in Practice #1
Assessment of health needs and assets
Individual assessment
Community assessment
Using assessment data for planning and implementing interventions
Promoting healthy lifestyles
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Applying Epidemiologic Principles in Practice #2
Preventing and controlling outbreaks
Contributing to a safe and healthy environment
Evaluating the effectiveness of health services
Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer · All Rights Reserved

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