Just answer the following questions from the attachment.
Evaluate the following sources and decide whether you should use them in graduate level academic writing. Rank them in order of highest quality to lowest quality. Provide short discussion on your response including popular vs. scholarly, primary vs. secondary source, and whether it is credible.
1. CDC NNDSS: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/data-and-statistics.html
2. Article in Journal of Infectious Diseases (https://academic.oup.com/jid)
A communicable disease
Question 2 options:
is a disease that is spread from person to person
is synonymous with infectious disease
is not spread through air
only refers to viral diseases
Every year in the U.S. there are dozens of cases of a specific disease. How would you categorize this disease in the U.S.?
Question 3 options:
Match the disease with the type of transmission
Question 4 options:
Discuss the difference between a sensitive and specific case definition for a disease. Give examples of when each is used.
Which statement about vaccines is TRUE?
Question 6 options:
Dead or protein-based vaccines can cause the disease they are made to prevent.
Vaccines can only be used to prevent viral diseases.
Vaccines are used to treat diseases.
Vaccines stimulate production of memory T and B cells to protect from future infections.
Most microorganisms cause disease.
Question 7 options:
The terms “Infection” and “Disease” are synonymous.
Question 8 options:
Match the major type of microorganism with the true statement
Question 9 options:
simple, invertebrate animals that are difficult to treat because drugs that kill them are frequently very toxic to human cells
Obligate intracellular pathogens (meaning they need to infect a host cell to replicate)
Can be unicellular (yeast) or multicellular, Eukaryotic organisms
unicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes acquired through contaminated food or water or by the bite of an infected arthropod such as a mosquito
Unicellular prokaryotes that can be treated with antibiotics
Question 10 options:
refers to the proportion of infected individuals who develop clinically apparent disease
refers to the proportion of exposed persons who become infected
refers to the proportion of clinically apparent cases that are severe or fatal
refers to persons who are infectious but have subclinical disease
Critical characteristic(s) of a surveillance system include
Question 11 options:
all answers are correct
Describe the steps in an outbreak investigation.
Question 13 options:
is a system designed by the CDC for use in the U.S. after natural disasters
is a substitute surveillance system that permanently replaces the national surveillance system
reports monthly data aggregated by health facilities for research purposes
fills a gap during the acute phase of an emergency when the routine systems are disrupted
Discuss how a national surveillance plan should set a list of diseases as priority for surveillance. Do not discuss specific disease but discuss the attributes that make the disease worth monitoring through surveillance.
What are the four diseases requiring notification to WHO in all circumstances under the IHR (2005)?
Question 15 options:
measles, SARS, pertussis, meningitis
smallpox, poliovirus, Ebola, SARS
smallpox, wild type poliovirus, new subtype of human influenza, and SARS
vaccine-derived poliovirus, measles, H1N1 influenza virus, SARS
In the case study of EWARN after the 2008 earthquake in Haiti, what was the key conclusion?
Question 16 options:
The system is timely, cost-effective and limits the overload of a manual weekly reporting system.
There were issues of IT compatibility with other national databases which may have a negative impact on long term integration into routine surveillance systems
It was widely appreciated, understood and enjoys widespread compliance, due in part to the regular inperson visits of the surveillance officers to the health-care facilities.
The system was hampered by under-reporting, inconsistency of case definitions, lack of baseline data, fluid population movements, technological errors, lack of trained personnel and missing data.
A rapid health assessment must be conducted as soon as possible after an emergency in order to control communicable diseases. The rapid health assessment team should include ALL EXCEPT
Question 17 options:
a water and sanitation/environmental health specialist
a governmental official
a public health expert/epidemiologist
Good site planning after an emergency is key to preventing communicable diseases. The site plan should include
Question 18 options:
basic clinical services
control of disease vectors
A good site plan will include all of the answers
mass vaccination against specific diseases
clean water and proper sanitation
The diseased living are a far greater hazard than the deceased, because most pathogens do not survive long in dead bodies.
Question 19 options:
After a natural disaster certain communicable diseases are at higher risk. Match the disease associated with the potential conditions after a natural disaster
Question 20 options:
lack of sanitation and latrines
increase in vectors
urine contaminated flood waters
Acute respiratory infections
A disaster is defined as
Question 21 options:
interrupts normal function of a community
All of the answers are part of the definition
affected population cannot fully cope with effects of the disaster
normal function cannot be resumed without external assistance
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