Health Sciences Test

Just answer the following questions from the attachment.
publichealth
ATTACHED FILE(S)
Question 1
Evaluate the following sources and decide whether you should use them in graduate level academic writing. Rank them in order of highest quality to lowest quality. Provide short discussion on your response including popular vs. scholarly, primary vs. secondary source, and whether it is credible.
1. CDC NNDSS: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/data-and-statistics.html
2. Article in Journal of Infectious Diseases (https://academic.oup.com/jid)
3. https://www.nature.com/news
4. https://www.cancer.org/
5. https://blog.feedspot.com/science_blogs/
6. https://www.usnews.com/news/national-news
Question 2
A communicable disease
Question 2 options:

is a disease that is spread from person to person

is synonymous with infectious disease

is not spread through air

only refers to viral diseases
Question 3
Every year in the U.S. there are dozens of cases of a specific disease. How would you categorize this disease in the U.S.?
Question 3 options:

pandemic

epidemic

endemic

sporadic
Question 4
Match the disease with the type of transmission
Question 4 options:

measles

Ebola

malaria

SARS

cholera

1.

vectorborne

2.

airborne

3.

droplet

4.

direct contact

5.

fecal-oral
Question 5
Discuss the difference between a sensitive and specific case definition for a disease. Give examples of when each is used.
Question 6
Which statement about vaccines is TRUE?
Question 6 options:

Dead or protein-based vaccines can cause the disease they are made to prevent.

Vaccines can only be used to prevent viral diseases.

Vaccines are used to treat diseases.

Vaccines stimulate production of memory T and B cells to protect from future infections.
Question 7
Most microorganisms cause disease.
Question 7 options:

True

False
Question 8
The terms “Infection” and “Disease” are synonymous.
Question 8 options:

True

False
Question 9
Match the major type of microorganism with the true statement
Question 9 options:

simple, invertebrate animals that are difficult to treat because drugs that kill them are frequently very toxic to human cells

Obligate intracellular pathogens (meaning they need to infect a host cell to replicate)

Can be unicellular (yeast) or multicellular, Eukaryotic organisms

unicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes acquired through contaminated food or water or by the bite of an infected arthropod such as a mosquito

Unicellular prokaryotes that can be treated with antibiotics

1.

Bacteria

2.

viruses

3.

fungi

4.

protozoa

5.

helminths
Question 10
Virulence
Question 10 options:

refers to the proportion of infected individuals who develop clinically apparent disease

refers to the proportion of exposed persons who become infected

refers to the proportion of clinically apparent cases that are severe or fatal

refers to persons who are infectious but have subclinical disease
Question 11
Critical characteristic(s) of a surveillance system include
Question 11 options:

representation

all answers are correct

sensitivity

timeliness
Question 12
Describe the steps in an outbreak investigation.
Question 13
EWARN
Question 13 options:

is a system designed by the CDC for use in the U.S. after natural disasters

is a substitute surveillance system that permanently replaces the national surveillance system

reports monthly data aggregated by health facilities for research purposes

fills a gap during the acute phase of an emergency when the routine systems are disrupted
Question 14
Discuss how a national surveillance plan should set a list of diseases as priority for surveillance. Do not discuss specific disease but discuss the attributes that make the disease worth monitoring through surveillance.
Question 15
What are the four diseases requiring notification to WHO in all circumstances under the IHR (2005)?
Question 15 options:

measles, SARS, pertussis, meningitis

smallpox, poliovirus, Ebola, SARS

smallpox, wild type poliovirus, new subtype of human influenza, and SARS

vaccine-derived poliovirus, measles, H1N1 influenza virus, SARS
Question 16
In the case study of EWARN after the 2008 earthquake in Haiti, what was the key conclusion?
Question 16 options:

The system is timely, cost-effective and limits the overload of a manual weekly reporting system.

There were issues of IT compatibility with other national databases which may have a negative impact on long term integration into routine surveillance systems

It was widely appreciated, understood and enjoys widespread compliance, due in part to the regular inperson visits of the surveillance officers to the health-care facilities.

The system was hampered by under-reporting, inconsistency of case definitions, lack of baseline data, fluid population movements, technological errors, lack of trained personnel and missing data.
Question 17
A rapid health assessment must be conducted as soon as possible after an emergency in order to control communicable diseases. The rapid health assessment team should include ALL EXCEPT
Question 17 options:

a water and sanitation/environmental health specialist

a governmental official

a nutritionist

a public health expert/epidemiologist
Question 18
Good site planning after an emergency is key to preventing communicable diseases. The site plan should include
Question 18 options:

basic clinical services

control of disease vectors

A good site plan will include all of the answers

mass vaccination against specific diseases

clean water and proper sanitation
Question 19
The diseased living are a far greater hazard than the deceased, because most pathogens do not survive long in dead bodies.
Question 19 options:

True

False
Question 20
After a natural disaster certain communicable diseases are at higher risk. Match the disease associated with the potential conditions after a natural disaster
Question 20 options:

food contamination

lack of sanitation and latrines

increase in vectors

urine contaminated flood waters

crowding

1.

Acute respiratory infections

2.

malaria

3.

cholera

4.

leptospirosis

5.

shigellosis
Question 21
A disaster is defined as
Question 21 options:

interrupts normal function of a community

All of the answers are part of the definition

affected population cannot fully cope with effects of the disaster

normal function cannot be resumed without external assistance

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