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Chinese Migrant Networks and Cultural Change Reflection
After reading the book “Chinese Migrant Networks”, there are different ideas it sparked in me. It is therefore important to make a reflection on such ideas. The reflection on the book will show that I have read and understood the book and still I have some scholarly insights based on the text and the experience I gained on reading it. One of the key ideas that I can make a reflection on is the idea of capitalism, migration, violence between migrants,economic depression, and negotiating political shifts.
Capitalism is slowly becoming lesser popular among the younger generation. I have once heard about capitalism floating around within the last couple of years. The agenda of capitalism was fit within the white Americans in Hawaii. Nevertheless, it would have been a problem among the Chinese merchants together with the rice planters(McKeown 4).I understood that a rational economic decision that can be made by farmer anywhere within the world is based on the capitalist economic logic.The entire idea of capitalism may end up being irrational to the group of farmers.
I understood that capitalism can be used in containing the wealthy nations including China. China may have taken advantage of the American market. Nevertheless, they were directly linked to the different business networks that were trying them back to China rather than in California (McKeown 4). That made me aware that the entire idea of capitalism can be used in referring to the enterprise economy or even the free market economy. I learned that production can be guided while at the same time income being distributed largely by the operations of the market.
Migration is generally the way of moving from one place to another with the aim of either working or living in that respective place. It seems that different places or nations are impacted through migration. It is obvious that the idea of migration is among the defining features of the current society. Migration spans the history of a variety of regions and nations and therefore it is expected to be addressed from a global perspective (McKeown 5). I understood how the idea of migration has been polarized between a variety of concepts including push and pull, or tradition and adaptation that has the responsibility of privileging the perspective of countries framing two ends of migrant journeys. I learned that different metaphors such as “transplanted” can be used when describing migration as a type of break.
Migration can sometimes be beneficial to the migrants, their families or even their countries of origin. But situations may change at the country of origin before the migrant comes back. I learned that the majority of the migrants may wish to go back once they have realized that things are not the same as they left (McKeown 8). People should always reduce the expectations when migrants are going back to their countries of origin reason being all countries can never be the same. Instead of going back, the migrants should develop a way that they can adapt to the changes in their countries of origin.
Violence between Migrants
Violence incidences may take place between and within the migrant communities. In most cases, the causal relationship between migrants is limited because of the weak instruments that can be used in determining causality.The key issue facing the immigrants rotates around the locations of the immigrants that are endogenous meaning that immigrants tend to be located around places where there are higher incidences of crime. Nevertheless, the issue of distribution of representation was debated violently in various huiguan while at the same time declined in both its size and power (McKeown 182). I understood that legal status can highly determine violence between either legal or illegal immigrants.
Significant attention should be given to the violence caused by the people in the process of migration.Violence among the migrants is now common in the world while the total number of people being victimized increasing annually hence exploiting human hope and desperation. Among the largest incidences of violence among migrants that have already been recorded in the incidence between the bendi and Hakkas (McKeown 182). I learned that it is important to have an understanding of the nature and extent of violence that is always faced by the migrants. Once the irregular situations faced by the migrants are not well recorded, then their victimization may not be well recorded.
Economic depression can be termed as the prolonged period of an economic recession that is always marked by the significant decline in either income or employment. Nevertheless, the entire idea of economic depression has not well been determined. There was a rapid increase in the population of the Chinese in California where an economic depression resulted in most of the unemployed Chinese move to San Francisco (McKeown 183). I understood that economic depression can result in a reduction in the progress of different projects while companies moving out of normal operations. I realized that some of the common factors that can be used in characterizing economic depression are increased unemployment.
Economic depression is a widespread economic decline that can take place for a long period of time. There is no specific period when the economic depression can take place since it can take place for some months or even for a couple of decades. Personal services and participation tend to emerge under the influence of ambitious merchants (McKeown 183). I understood that the economic depression can reach is the lowest points after incidences of unemployment have been created. No one benefits from economic depression, not even the respective countries so the nations need to ensure they have clearly addressed the issue.
Negotiating Political Shifts
Under some particular situations, challenges of political shifts may be overcome through the institutional rules of collective engagement that may enable the collaborative negotiation of the political shifts. Negotiation of the political shifts may sometimes be characterized by mutual justification while at the same time looking for some fair terms of outcomes. Although the Chinese migrants were facing different troubles, they flourished in Hawaii between 1876 and 1898 (McKeown 231). Their economic strengths increased dramatically and they started being entrenched at the nodes of different local power networks. I understood that such kind of negotiations can entail pure deliberation.
In most cases, the deliberative negotiation can include what is termed as the partially integrative negotiation. Such kind of negotiation includes different political parties bringing various issues that they face in different priorities hence start trading on such issues with higher priorities with the ones that have lower priorities for others. The stipulation of the Reciprocity Treaty that took place in 1876 worked with the declining native population so that it can emphasize creating opportunities that can result in the entrenchment of the interests of the Chinese people (McKeown 231). I learned that while linking the interests of different parties within a negotiation should be actively sought out and brought into the discussion. Negotiating political shifts can sometimes include the search for fair compromises.
The book addressed different significant ideas that can be reflected in. Some of the key ideas that I can make a reflection on is the idea of capitalism, migration, violence between migrants, economic depression, and negotiating political shifts. Production can be guided while at the same time income being distributed largely by the operations of the market.
McKeown, Adam. Chinese migrant networks and cultural change: Peru, Chicago, and Hawaii 1900-1936. University of Chicago Press, 2001.
Name of the Student
Reflection: Pop Empire
The American culture has been dominating the pop-culture for many years. It has been the source of influence in most parts of the world. However, this has changed especially due to the rising influence that is being made in India and Korea in the film, music and the entertainment industry. The increasing acceptance in Hollywood has reduced the fame and strength with which American culture was taken to influence the world. The major cause of this change is the globalization and use of technology which has made it possible for the films and dances from India and Korea to be showcased in different parts of the world.
Globalization and technology has given different people in varied parts of the world an opportunity to grow and develop as well as influence people internationally. The world is an open consumer of culture which chooses depending on the availability in the minds, bandwidths as well as in the hearts of people (Lee, Monika and Robert 11). The Indians have grown to influence the lives of people beyond their boundaries. This can be attributed to the culture that is well packaged and that which is unique. I believe that America has influenced the culture for many years. They have shown people what they can offer in the films and their music. This is a culture that has been filled with racism and lack of equality. As a result, the world has become used to what is expected and this is the reason a void exists making people interested to learn from other cultures.
The greatest success that has led to the massive influence the Indian and the Korean entertainment industry has achieved is the adoption of anesthetics as well as the narratives and the practices which are associated with Hollywood(Lee, Monika and Robert 17). This is where the stars are depicted as the models and people who can influence the society in order to achieve greater success. Therefore, using the aesthetics, the Indians and the Koreans have been able to acquire the quality of the Hollywood and depict the life issues in a better way. This is the reason why there is a global wave of acceptance of the pop culture from these countries.
America has had the influence over the cultures of the world for long. However, they lack the one factor that defines them. Hollywood has no single factor that makes it unique. On the other hand, it is seen that the Korean culture industry is unique because it cannot evolve without its hybridity and mimicry (Lee, Monika and Robert 26). This means that it combines all the aspects and the issues of the society including the languages and the politics. As a result, it is unique and genre that is shaped by the available local tastes of the consumers as well as their habits which are translated to other transnational dimensions. This means that the Koreans have been able to reproduce their culture and relate it to the world.
Culture and nurture are the other factors that have led to the growth of the pop culture from Korea and India. In United States, the talent belongs to a single individual. The rise in the industry be it music or acting is majorly as a result of the efforts of an individual. There is no oneness and mentorship in such processes. In the world where the issues of inclusivity as well as racism have raised great questions, the popularity of such a culture is expected to go down. However, in the Korean Culture, talent is supposed to be owned by the agencies. They have become families which grow together. This has enabled them to bring out the best of the skills from each other and come up with better, greater and widely acceptable ideas. People are trained in areas such as singing, dancing, as well as participating in hosts and guests on different programs(Lee, Monika and Robert 30). This is a great contrast to the United States approach.
The growth of Hollywood was largely because they were able to control the airwaves. This is a time when media was more restricted. However, with globalization, the world has become a global village. I think this is of great benefit to the emerging cultures which are in need of growing into the position of Hollywood. The division that existed between the West and the so-called Rest has been bridged (Lee, Monika and Robert 178). This is because technology has brought a neutral and homogenous ground where all the players can compete. As a result, the experiences of adversaries due to taking over of territories have reduced. Globalization has made it possible for people in any part of the world without using any of the available channels developed by companies to reach as many people as possible.
One major factor that has favored Korea and India into becoming hubs for techno-cultural production and consumption is the economic shift. United States has remained to be the country which had the most powerful economy for many years. This is the reason it was able to influence different factors. However, the other countries in Asia are now rising. They are becoming more powerful when they are together compared to United States (Lee, Monika and Robert 213). This means that they have the capacity and the power to push forward their culture using dance or songs or films. There is also available market due to the growing markets and economic gains.
The digital media platforms have played a great role in enhancing the stardom of the Korean and Indian personalities. This is because celebrities and stardom are blended together by these platforms (Lee, Monika and Robert 259). I believe that the technology and the development of strong economies in Korea and India has made it possible for them to increasingly develop and grow into the same levels as the personalities in Hollywood. However, the most significant factor is that they have been able to use the media to address issues which have bothered people for many years. Issues such as heterosexual romance and lesbianism have all been well represented. The world is prepared to learn as opposed to watching the discriminations which are present using Hollywood.
The government support has also played a role in enhancing the developments that have given the Indian and the Korean cultures a chance to compete with Hollywood. This has most especially been useful in raising local pop star fans that are able to identify and celebrate a particular star. The results are that the industry grew to target other segments of consumers including the teenagers and women (Lee, Monika and Robert 296). The use of internet creates greater fan connection and hence an accepted culture is passed on to the others faster and it spreads throughout the world.
In conclusion, the factors contributing to transnational and diasporic flow of the Indian and the Korean culture are supported by the growing economic as well as development of technology and globalization in the world. The different themes once controlled by the Hollywood players are now accessible in the world. These include the themes of stardom, lesbianism as well as use of aesthetics to enhance the attractiveness of the pop-culture. The acceptance by the teenagers who have been the main target in Bollywood and the Korean market has made it possible to increase massive sharing using the internet as the main medium. This means that the complexities of the known media facilities have been dealt with. Therefore, globalization has played an important role in the increased flow of the Indian and Korean culture in the world beyond the territorial boundaries.
Lee, S. Heijin, Monika Mehta, and Robert Ji-Song Ku, eds.Pop Empires: Transnational and Diasporic Flows of India and Korea. University of Hawaii Press, 2019.
Name of the Student
Servants of Globalization
From the “Servants of Globalization,” it is clear that the major cause of migration among the Filipinos is the need to find jobs that are able to sustain their families. This is the reason they are willing to travel to different parts of the world being segregated from the children and their nuclear families. The case of Nene who has been a domestic worker for long shows that people have needs which make them take on the great risks of working in a foreign country performing menial jobs such as cleaning, cooking and taking care of children (Parreñas 5). Therefore, with the increase in globalization aspects of division of labor and welfare of the employees has risen.
The greatest problem associated with the movement of domestic workers is the fact that they remain as foreigners in another country. This is because they are not protected by their countries and are not considered the residents of the particular country they work in. this is the reason why in the face of problems they may face discrimination or low wages. In the case of Nene, she changed her Job and went to Denmark where she was able to secure a job with les responsibilities and at the same time a better pay. She was used to working until 10pm midnight but in this new job she only works for 30 hours in a week(Parreñas 7). The migration to these different countries is caused by the growing need for women to have their children taken care of as technology and globalization have increased the number of responsibilities on the parents.
Globalization and the growth of market economies have increased the extent to which the laborers can work to international level (Parreñas 15). This is because there is a growing international transfer especially of the reproductive domestic workers. In developed countries such as Denmark the parents are involved in their jobs and hence cannot have the time to effectively take care of their children. This is the reason why the domestic workers such as those from Philippines are of great help. They are supposed to keep the houses in a standard that the other woman wants it to be. This means taking care of the children, instilling morals in them as well as cleaning and cooking.
Majority of the people working in international domestic jobs are women. This is because traditionally and from the past, women have been seen as the people who should sit at homes to bear and care for the children. However, in this case, women in developed economies are supposed to work and complement on the family salaries. Therefore, they need a replacement at home who is a woman to replace them in their chores. This is the major reason why in Philippines the number of working class women is increasing(Parreñas 78). Some are in the domestic jobs in different countries such as Italy and United States. This means that the privileged women in a position to purchase the household services of the domestic workers.
The main problem that is facing the domestic workers in their immigration processes is that that there is racism as well as class differentiation when it comes to accessing jobs in the transnational economy. The less-privileged are seen as easier targets to perform jobs which are low paying as well as with little freedom. At one instant Nene describes the Singapore employer to have been cruel. She was a person who monitored her physical movements and could only eat food from the refrigerator when the employer says so(Parreñas 16). This shows the reason why discrimination of those working in these foreign countries continues.
The main reason why the Filipinos are moving to the foreign countries to work in household jobs is because they have to help sustain their families. The family structure in Philippines is maintained by a strong bond in the family as well as piety(Parreñas88). This is because the family is raised to care for the needs of each other. This is the reason why migration has been mostly targeting women who have to labor hard to ensure that their family members are well fed and receive all the necessities.
Women have also become the majority of domestic workers because with the growing globalization marriages have become threatened. This leads to divorce or single parents who must take care of the dependents. In most cases, the women have no skills or professionals that they can hold onto. This makes them to leave their abusive or unfaithful husbands and look for other methods of raising their children (Parreñas 145). This shows the continued and changing role that women have to carry now. In the past, women were supposed to be provided for. They were required to stay at home and take care of the children. They were not required to gain formal education since the household jobs did not require such knowledge. For this reason, in the instance of divorce they are left with the same responsibility of bringing up the children but this time round they lack the finances and resources.
The most disturbing outcome of migration of the domestic workers is that they are separated from their children. They are given responsibilities of caring for the young ones who call their parents “Mama” which reminds them of the children they left at home and their relations. The pain of seeing a child after several years of separation is painful. At one instant a mother who left the last child at five years meets her daughter at nine years and still wants to be carried (Parreñas 15). This is the pain of globalization and domestic workers have been in the families. As the rich people are binding their strong bonds and maintaining their families, the poor are constantly being separated with international distances. The main reason is to seek the higher wages because the salary of a domestic worker in Philippines is lower compared to the other countries.
Women can be changers of the societies as they selflessly render their services for the better and growth of families. They are however, faced with challenges such as increase in the cost of migration. Every person wants to work in a place where they are provided with the best conditions to work as well as a better pay. However, there is a growing new business that takes advantage of these workers. The migration fees have increased and this has rendered some domestic workers ineligible to travel to some countries. In countries such as Israel where pay is good, the placement fees are as high as $5,000 which may be a problem for some people to rise (Parreñas 74). This makes the conditions difficult for the domestic workers. Canada is also a country with great pay and better conditions but the travel fees are high as well.
In conclusion, globalization has led to what can be referred to as division of labor. This is where there are clear defined roles between different races and social classes. The developed nations have increasingly become a place where both parents have to work to maintain their families. On the other hand, countries such as Philippines where family bonds have remained strong have become easier targets for domestic workers. They have travelled far and wide to perform jobs such as cleaning and cooking to earn a living and maintain their families back at home. The result is the rising numbers of women who are leaving their families and travelling to search for a better pay to maintain their children.
Parreñas, Rhacel.Servants of globalization: Migration and domestic work. Stanford University Press, 2015.
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